"What is gynecomastia"

Gynecomastia  Whenever there is enlargement of the glandular tissue of the male breast, it is known as Gynecomastia.

During infancy and puberty in normally-developing boys, this condition may occur.

Gynecomastia results from an imbalance in the hormonal environment in the body, with a relative excess of estrogens (female hormones) when compared to androgens (male hormones).
The causes of the gynecomastia can result as a side effect of numerous medications and drugs of abuse, for example:

Corticosteroids and anabolic steroids


Herbals like dong quai, tea tree oil, and lavender

Opioids (narcotic drugs)

Estrogen (including those in soy products)

Heartburn drugs

Anti-anxiety medication

The problem also is associated with certain medical conditions and treatments, for example:


Chronic kidney failure

Cirrhosis of the liver

Low testosterone levels


Medications and surgical treatments can be used to treat the problem.

What is gynecomastia (enlarged male breasts)?
Gynecomastia Gland tissue of the male breast enlarges. Gynecomastia can be common during infancy, puberty, and in middle-aged to older men. Gynecomastia must be distinguished from Pseudogynecomastia or Lipomastia, which refers to the presence of fat deposits in the breast area of obese men. Glandular, or breast tissue is present in very small amounts in men due to which true gynecomastia results. The condition is the most common reason for medical evaluation of the male breast.

What are the signs and symptoms of gynecomastia?
The enlargement of the male breasts is the primary symptom of gynecomastia. Rather than fatty tissue, gynecomastia is the enlargement of glandular tissue. It may have a rubbery or firm feel and is typically symmetrical in a location with regard to the nipple. Gynecomastia usually occurs on both sides but can be unilateral in some cases. The enlargement may be greater on one side even if both sides are involved. There is typically no severe pain even though there are tenderness and sensitivity present. 

The most important distinction with gynecomastia is differentiation from male breast cancer, which accounts for about 1% of overall cases of breast cancer. Cancer is usually confined to one side. Around the nipple, It is not necessarily centred in position. 

Who gets gynecomastia?
As a part of the normal developmental process, normally-developing pubertal males may be at risk for gynecomastia. Gynecomastia might be normally present in male infants also. 

Other risk factors include:

Ageing, Decreases in testosterone production due to ageing can cause the problem.

The same risk factors that predispose to those conditions that the risks of developing enlarged male breasts related to specific diseases and conditions (such as cirrhosis of the liver).

Taking certain medications may increase the risk of developing the problem.

What does gynecomastia look like?
Are enlarged breasts in men a medical condition (gynecomastia) or from excess body fat (Pseudogynecomastia)?

Levels of estrogen (female hormones) are increased relative to levels of androgens (male hormones), Gynecomastia results from an imbalance in hormone levels. All individuals, whether male or female, possess both female hormones (estrogens) and male hormones (androgens). Widely varying results, with prevalence estimates as low as 4% and as high as 69% of adolescent boys regarding studies of the prevalence of gynecomastia in normal adolescents have yielded. The different ages of boys are to be examined in the studies and these differences probably result from variations in what is perceived to be normal. Growth usually disappears on its own within six months to two years.  Gynecomastia is caused by transient changes in hormone levels. 

What diseases and conditions cause gynecomastia?
A number of medical conditions may also result in gynecomastia:

Malnutrition and re-feeding (recovery from malnutrition) have both been shown to create a hormonal environment that may lead to gynecomastia

Decreased testosterone production and relatively high estrogen levels, which leads to gynecomastia by virtue of disorders of the male sex organs (testes). Testicular cancers may also secrete hormones that cause gynecomastia.