"What causes muscle spasms?"

An involuntary contraction of a muscle is a muscle spasm or muscle cramp. Muscle spasms occur suddenly, usually resolve quickly, and are often painful. A muscle spasm is different than a muscle twitch. A small segment of a larger muscle that can be seen under the skin is a muscle twitch, or fasciculation and is an uncontrolled fine movement of Muscle Cramps and Muscle Spasms: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments

                                             

What causes muscle spasms?
Each area depends upon predisposing factors, there are a variety of causes of muscle spasms and the part of the body involved, and the environment that the body is in.

When a muscle is overused, tired, previously injured, or strained, spasms may occur. The muscle becomes hyper-excitable, resulting in a forceful contraction If the muscle is held in the same position for a prolonged period of time, then the spasm may occur if the muscle has been overstretched. In effect, the muscle cell runs out of energy and fluid and. This spasm may include even adjacent muscles with part of a muscle, or the whole muscle.

Athletes who are doing strenuous exercise in a hot environment overuse as a cause of skeletal muscle spasm is often seen. This is also an occupational issue with construction workers or others working in a hot environment. Being asked to do the work usually, the spasms will occur in the large muscles that are strained. Heat cramps occur when this occurs associated with heat exposure, the condition is also known as overuse. Shovelling snow, or mowing or raking grass, causing muscle spasms of the neck, shoulder, and back it all can also occur with routine daily activities. A woman experiences a muscle spasm in her leg.

What causes muscle spasms? 
Unfamiliar exercise activities can also cause muscle spasms to occur. By doing sit-ups and repeating too many quickly, abdominal spasms can occur. When a person decides to begin working their abdominal muscles, prolonged use of the small muscles in the hand and the overused muscles cramp Writer's cramps of the hand and fingers. To prevent or treat this situation, People will routinely rest and stretch their fingers either. Depletion of electrolytes will lead to muscle spasm and cramping, it is a common thought that causing dehydration. To allow the proteins within them to develop an organized contraction Muscle cell require enough water, glucose, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. Muscle can become irritable and develop spasm due to the abnormal supply of these elements.

                                               

Peripheral artery disease can decrease the flow of blood to the legs, causing pain in the legs with activity. There may also be associated muscle cramps.

Cramps to legs may also be seen at night involving calf and toe muscles Leg spasms are often seen related to exercise. Nocturnal leg cramps and restless legs syndrome are considered a type of sleep disturbance. Their prevalence increases with age and often a precise cause is not found.

Recurrent muscles spasms
Recurrent muscles spasms can occur from Chronic neck and back pain. Large muscle groups make up the trunk, including the neck, chest wall, upper back, lower back, arms, and legs. Spasms in these muscles can be a result of an injury or they may develop over time because of arthritic changes in the spine. Muscle cramps can occur due to obesity that can cause stress and strain of the core muscles of the trunk, resulting in of the neck and upper and lower back. Systemic illnesses like diabetes, anaemia (low red blood cell count), kidney disease, and thyroid and other hormone issues are also potential causes of muscle spasms.

There are several diseases that can be associated with muscle spasms like diseases of the nervous system, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, or spinal cord injury.

Smooth muscle can also go into spasm. When a hollow structure filled with air or fluid is squeezed by the muscle spasm, significant pain may occur, since the fluid or air cannot be compressed. There are cases causing waves of pain called colic, for example, smooth muscle in the intestinal wall can go into spasm. Colicky pain which tends to come and go may also occur within the bile duct that empties the gallbladder and may develop after eating.

Kidney stone and urinary system                The urinary system may spasm rhythmically and cause significant pain when kidney stones try to pass through the urinary tract. The smooth muscles that are on the walls of the ureter (that connects the kidney to the bladder) may often this have the type of pain associated with nausea and vomiting and are called renal colic.

When acid reflux causes irritation of the lining of the oesophagus resulting in esophagitis or GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease), muscles that surround the oesophagus can go into spasm.

Diarrheal can be associated with colicky pain, where the muscles within the colon wall spasm just before a watery bowel movement.

When the walls of the uterus contract forcefully, menstrual cramps occur in women. 

The coronary arteries that supply the heart muscle with blood also have smooth muscle within their walls that may go into spasm. The pain of coronary artery disease (where plaque has accumulated and narrowed the arteries) can cause chest pain that may be indistinguishable from Coronary artery spasm which often occurs in smokers or those who have high cholesterol blood levels. Medications that can constrict or narrow blood vessels Coronary artery spasm may be triggered by stress, alcohol withdrawal, stimulant drug abuse (especially cocaine) etc. Coronary artery spasm is also known as Prinzmetal's angina.